Click hereto get an answer to your question ✍️ Al - Biruni a traveller from visited India more than a thousand years ago. [17] He was conversant in Khwarezmian, Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, and also knew Greek, Hebrew and Syriac. He was born in Khwarazm, then part of the Samanid Empire (modern Khiva, Uzbekistan). [74], The book does not limit itself to tedious records of battle because Al-Biruni found the social culture to be more important. In it he not only defended the role of the mathematical sciences against the attacks of religious scholars who could not understand the utility of the mathematical sciences but also detailed all that one needed to know about determining longitudes and latitudes on land. 2004. He developed a method for converting the dates of the Hindu calendar to the dates of the three different calendars that were common in the Islamic countries of his time period, the Greek, the Arab/Muslim, and the Persian. He made the first semantic distinction between astronomy and astrology. Al biruni a universal genius in jual poster peta i r azil al biruni and the mathematical geography ahmad al biruni 214 3 le sketch al biruni a muslim critical thinker AlbiruniAl Biruni And The Mathematical GeographyAl Biruni Bukan Penganut I R Ir IdThe Invention Of World TodayAl Biruni And The Mathematical GeographyThe Science Of… Read More » His main field of study, however, was astronomy. [27] He was sympathetic to the Afrighids, who were overthrown by the rival dynasty of Ma'munids in 995. Abu Rayhan al-Biruni /ælbɪˈruːni/ (973 – after 1050) was an Iranian scholar and polymath during the Islamic Golden Age. Even though al-Bīrūnī was possibly the unwilling guest of a merciless warrior, he still made use of the occasion to pen the acute observations about India that would earn him fame as an ethnographer, anthropologist, and eloquent historian of Indian science. Al-Biruni wrote about the peoples, customs and religions of the Indian subcontinent. C A traveler from Uzbekistan who wrote a book which is helpful to know the past of our country D A traveler who travelled from Kashmir to Kanyakumari to study the culture al Indian people Taken together, these two works preserve the best premodern description of the cultures al-Bīrūnī came to know. "Al-Biruni (973–1048)." It was only hundreds of years later in the West, that his books became read and referenced again, especially his book on India which became relevant to the British Empire's activity in India from the 17th century. History and Chronology", "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN vii., MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive - Biography of Abu Arrayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni, al-Biruni - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Biruni notes in the beginning of his book how the Muslims had a hard time learning about Hindu knowledge and culture. These descriptions are useful to today's modern historians because they are able to use Biruni's scholarship to locate certain destinations in modern-day India. In that context he wrote of precious metals and gems, which were considered foundational for any economic system, and he wrote of diamonds and their particular social importance. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Only a minuscule number of his output, 22 titles, has survived, and only about half of that has been published. At Qābūs’s court, al-Bīrūnī met the famous philosopher-scientist Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) and exchanged with him a philosophical correspondence that did not lack jealousies and slighting. Some suggest that his reasons for refuting astrology were due to the methods used by astrologers being based on pseudoscience rather than empiricism and also due to the views of astrologers conflicting with Sunni Islam.[39][40]. [72] He expresses his objective with simple eloquence: He also translated the works of Indian sage Patanjali with the title Tarjamat ketāb BātanjalÄ« fi’l-ḵalāṣ men al-ertebāk. Al-Biruni also described the geography of India in his work. To conduct research, Al-Biruni used different methods to tackle the various fields he studied. But even if the impulses for geometric design were originally created at the highest intellectual level, the designs themselves rapidly became automatic patterns. He was a colleague of the fellow philosopher and physician Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna), the historian, philosopher and ethicist Ibn Miskawayh, in a university and science center established by prince Abu al-Abbas Ma'mun Khawarazmshah. He assumed the superiority of Islam: "We have here given an account of these things in order that the reader may learn by the comparative treatment of the subject how much superior the institutions of Islam are, and how more plainly this contrast brings out all customs and usages, differing from those of Islam, in their essential foulness." Professor of Arabic and Islamic Science, Department of Middle East and Asian Languages and Cultures, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. Al-Biruni was the most original scholar of the medieval Islamic world. "[65], Al-Biruni divides Hindus into an educated and an uneducated class. Retrieved August 20, 2015. Al-Biruni’s academic interests and activities encompassed a wide variety of subjects, ranging from abstract theories of philosophy to the practical sciences of mathematics, geography, geology, physics, astronomy and medicine. Answer: Al-Biruni was conscious of the problems involved in understanding strange countries. The lunar crater Al-Biruni and the asteroid 9936 Al-Biruni were named in his honour. Edited with introduction and notes by Ainslee T. Embree, The Norton Library, 1971. SUNY press, 1993. pp 111: "Al-Biruni wrote one of the masterpieces of medieval science, Kitab al-Tafhim, apparently in both Arabic and Persian, demonstrating how conversant he was in both tongues. He said this in the context of demonstrating his total disgust with flattery, even when it was being directed at him. [62], Biruni wrote most of his works in Arabic, as the scientific language of his age, however, his Persian version of the Al-Tafhim[76] is one of the most important of the early works of science in the Persian language, and is a rich source for Persian prose and lexicography. But, his details are brief and mostly just list rulers without referring to their real names. He wrote some 150 books, about half of them on astronomy or mathematics.The others explored a wide range of subjects, from physics to gems to world cultures.. Al-Biruni was born on September 4, 973, in Khwarezm, in what is now Uzbekistan.Little is known of his early life. 5 Feb. 2015. [23] This contributed to his research of astronomy, since in Islam worship and prayer require knowing the precise directions of sacred locations, which can only be accurately found using astronomical data.[23]. He served more than six different princes, all of whom were known for their bellicose activities and a good number of whom met their ends in violent deaths. [23] More recently, Biruni's eclipse data was used by Dunthorne in 1749 to help determine the acceleration of the moon,[47] and his data on equinox times and eclipses was used as part of a study of Earth's past rotation. It lists synonyms for drug names in Syriac, Persian, Greek, Baluchi, Afghan, Kurdi, and some Indian languages. After a period in which al-Bīrūnī undertook extensive travels—or rather escapes from wars, and a constant search for patrons—the entire domain of the Sāmānids fell under the brutal reign of Maḥmūd, son of Sebüktigin. "[75] [23] Biruni became acquainted with all things related to India. The most prominent of both modern and ancient astronomers have deeply studied the question of the moving of the earth, and tried to refute it. He accompanied Mahmud in his conquests to South Asia. He was born in Khwārezm, in the region beyond the ancient Oxus River (the river now known as the Amu Darya), and he was educated by a Khwārezm-Shāh prince, Abū Naṣr Manṣūr ibn ʿIrāq, a member of the dynasty that ruled the area and possibly a patron of al-Bīrūnī. For example, he raised questions about the formation of mountains and explained the existence there of fossils by positing that Earth was once underwater. A traveller from Arabia circa 1000 AD, who first described Malabar in his writings. In 1017, Mahmud of Ghazni took Rey. Watt, W. Montgomery, and Said Hakim M. "Al-BÄ«rÅ«nÄ« and the study of non-Islamic religions." [73] He also criticized the Hindus on what he saw them do and not do, for example finding them deficient in curiosity about history and religion. In the latter work, for example, is the most elaborate treatment of the Jewish calendar—more extensive than any surviving medieval Hebrew source and much more scientifically reasoned than any other treatment that this calendar had received up to that time. [30] Along with his writing, Al-Biruni also made sure to extend his study to science while on the expeditions. He capped that particular discussion with a solution to the rather sophisticated spherical trigonometric problem of determining the direction of Mecca along the local horizon at Ghazna. His early patronage by the Khwārezm-Shāhs did not seem to have lasted long, for one of their subordinates rebelled against his master and killed him, thus causing a civil war (c. 996–998) that forced al-Bīrūnī to flee and seek patronage from the more formidable Sāmānid dynasty, which ruled the vast eastern lands of Islam, comprising what is now eastern Iran and much of Afghanistan. Al Beruni was the First Muslim Scholar to study India and its Brahmanical tradition. During his journey through India, military and political histories were not of Al-Biruni's main focus. L. Rev. "Constitutional legitimacy: Sharia law, secularism and the social compact." [72] He explains that Hinduism and Islam are totally different from each other. When the Punjab became a part of the Ghaznavid Empire, Al-Biruni travelled widely in the Punjab and parts of northern India. [61], Biruni's main essay on political history, Kitāb al-musāmara fÄ« aḵbār Ḵᵛārazm (Book of nightly conversation concerning the affairs of Ḵᵛārazm) is now known only from quotations in BayhaqÄ«'s TārÄ«kh-e MasÊ¿Å«dÄ«. Abu Rayhan Beruni or Alberonius (Latin) was a Persian Scholar and polymath of the 11th century. Updates? There are many causes that made Al-Biruni visit in India. [72], One of the specific aspects of Hindu life that Al-Biruni studied was the Hindu calendar. [59][60], He used a hydrostatic balance to determine the density and purity of metals and precious stones. Al - Biruni a traveller from visited India more than a thousand years ago. He also theorized that at least some of the unknown landmass would lie within the known latitudes which humans could inhabit, and therefore would be inhabited. It was the place where he developed an interest for India. [85], A film about his life, Abu Raykhan Beruni, was released in the Soviet Union in 1974.[86]. He further argued that stating there is a change in the creator would mean there is a change in the effect (meaning the universe has change) and that the universe coming into being after not being is such a change (and so arguing there is no change - no beginning - means Aristotle believes the creator is negated). Instead, he decided to document the more civilian and scholarly areas of Hindu life such as culture, science, and religion. In his search for…, …as the scholar and scientist al-Bīrūnī or the poet-mathematician Omar Khayyam. [Alberuni's India by Al-Beruni (973-1048) (Kitab fi tahqiq ma li'l-hind or simply, Ta'riqh al-hind), early 11th century, translated by Edward C. Sachau. In his letters to Avicenna, he stated the argument of Aristotle, that there is a change in the creator. Its 1 (2011): 107. Biruni documented everything about India just as it happened. Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids at the hands of the Ma'munids, he made peace with the latter who then ruled Khwarezm. Al Biruni was a Persian scholar, astronomer, mathematician, ethnographist, anthropologist, historian, and geographer. [76] The book covers the Quadrivium in a detailed and skilled fashion. [23], BÄ«rÅ«nÄ« is one of the most important Muslim authorities on the history of religion. [9] He studied almost all fields of science and was compensated for his research and strenuous work. These are: Al-Biruni arrived in Ghazni as a hostage by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. Al-Bīrūnī also dedicated his Al-Āthār al-bāqiyyah ʿan al-qurūn al-khāliyyah (The Chronology of Ancient Nations) to Qābūs. He argued for its existence on the basis of his accurate estimations of the Earth's circumference and Afro-Eurasia's size, which he found spanned only two-fifths of the Earth's circumference, reasoning that the geological processes that gave rise to Eurasia must surely have given rise to lands in the vast ocean between Asia and Europe. [a] He was an impartial writer on customs and creeds of various nations, and was given the title al-Ustadh ("The Master") for his remarkable description of early 11th-century India. leading protagonist Al-Biruni, a scholar and mathematician, viewed natural law as the 'law of the jungle', and argued that the antagonism between human beings can only be overcome", Kaminski, Joseph J. Its expressive title, Taḥqīq mā li-l-hind min maqūlah maqbūlah fī al-ʿaql aw mardhūlah (“Verifying All That the Indians Recount, the Reasonable and the Unreasonable”), says it all; it includes all the lore that al-Bīrūnī could gather about India and its science, religion, literature, and customs. In his description of Sijzi's astrolabe he hints at contemporary debates over the movement of the earth. [23] His estimate was given as 12,803,337 cubits, so the accuracy of his estimate compared to the modern value depends on what conversion is used for cubits. His Istīʿāb al-wujūh al-mumkinah fī ṣanʿat al-asṭurlāb (“Exhaustive Book on Astrolabes”) discusses the possibility of Earth’s motion, as a consequence of a particular case of one astrolabe projection, only to dismiss it quickly as philosophical speculation that should not preoccupy the practical astronomer and applied mathematician. In addition to this type of influence, Al-Biruni was also influenced by other nations, such as the Greeks, who he took inspiration from when he turned to studies of philosophy. The exact length of a cubit is not clear; with an 18 inch cubit his estimate would be 3,600 miles, whereas with a 22 inch cubit his estimate would be 4,200 miles. He stated that he was fully objective in his writings, remaining unbiased like a proper historian should. Al-Bīrūnī lived during a period of unusual political turmoil in the eastern Islamic world. Different forts and landmarks were able to be located, legitimizing Al-Biruni's contributions with their usefulness to even modern history and archeology. He studied mathematics and astronomy under Abu Nasr Mansur. He is … NOW 50% OFF! Even then his comments were apparently restricted to the particular problem of latitude theory in Ptolemaic astronomy. Al-Biruni was born near Kath and the town were he was born is today called Biruni after the great scholar. [1] Biruni was made court astrologer[29] and accompanied Mahmud on his invasions into India, living there for a few years. He has mentioned three things that proved difficult: The first problem was language – Sanskrit was quite different from Arabic and Persian languages. This question is most difficult to solve. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBerjak2005 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPingree1989 (, sfn error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFPingree2010 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFAtaman2008 (, S.H. His book on Indian culture is by far the most important of his encyclopaedic works. Abu Rayhan Muhammad bin Ahmad Biruni is a renowned Iranian scientist. Most scholars, including al-Biruni, were taken to Ghazni, the capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty. SAID 1979 (1979): 414-9. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSaliba1989 (. His scholarship on the topic exhibited great determination and focus, not to mention the excellence in his approach of the in-depth research he performed. He sought to find a method to measure the height of the sun, and created a makeshift quadrant for that purpose. His calculated radius for the Earth of 3928.77 miles was 2% higher than the actual mean radius of 3847.80 miles. Historians are able to make some matches while also concluding that certain areas seem to have disappeared and been replaced with different cities. [33][34], Al-Biruni was proud of the fact that he followed the textual evidence of the religion without being influenced by Greek philosophers such as Aristotle. Abu Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna) and the founder of algebra al-Khwarizmi also worked there. There he wrote his first important work, al-Athar al-Baqqiya 'an al-Qorun al-Khaliyya (literally: "The remaining traces of past centuries" and translated as "Chronology of ancient nations" or "Vestiges of the Past") on historical and scientific chronology, probably around 1000 A.D., though he later made some amendments to the book. Although he tried to stay away from political and military history, Biruni did indeed record important dates and noted actual sites of where significant battles occurred. Al-Biruni, in the 11th century, wrote in his book the Demarcation of the Limits of the Areas that Islam has already penetrated from the Eastern countries of the earth to the Western. George Sarton, the founder of the History of Science discipline, defined al-Biruni as “one of the very greatest scientists of Islam, and, all considered, one of the greatest of all times”[1,2]. Al-Biruni was well-known in the Muslim world. Achutha Menon Ayyankali Sahodaran Ayyappan Arnos Padiri Alphonsa De Alburqueqe Aromal Chekavar Cabral Alvarez Ezhuthachan Gubernador Paremackel Herman Gundert Ibn Batuta John Neuhoff [76], After Al-Biruni's death, in the Ghaznavid dynasty and following centuries his work was not built on, nor referenced. There is only one hint, in a book known only by its title from other sources, Ibṭāl al-buhtān bi-īrād al-burhān (Disqualifying Falsehood by Producing Proof), that he ever approached such speculative cosmological questions. He also visited the court of the Bavandid ruler Al-Marzuban. Additionally, he chronicled stories of Indian rulers and told of how they ruled over their people with their beneficial actions and acted in the interests of the nation. [33][34], Al-Biruni contributed to the introduction of the scientific method to medieval mechanics. Alberuni accompanied the invading… I shall not produce the arguments of our antagonists in order to refute such of them, as I believe to be in the wrong. Furthermore, in a perfect al-Bīrūnī manner, each work contains extremely original comments on seemingly unrelated subjects. At the same time, Al-Biruni was also critical of Indian scribes, whom he believed carelessly corrupted Indian documents while making copies of older documents. He was a scientist, an anthropologist, an astronomer, an astrologer, an encyclopedist, mathematician, pharmacist, philosopher, and historian. Al-Biruni’s real name was Abu-Abdullah Muhammad. Mathematics and Astronomy", "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN iv. Nevertheless, he managed to become the most original polymath the Islamic world had ever known. [16] Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni to conduct research and study to uncover certain findings. [23] Al-Biruni was able to make much progress in his study over the frequent travels that he went on throughout the lands of India. [9], In Iran, Abu Rayhan Biruni's birthday is celebrated as the day of the surveying engineer. He has been variously called as the "founder of Indology", "Father of Comparative Religion", "Father of modern geodesy", and the first anthropologist. Al-Bīrūnī did not seem to have any interest in the subject of astronomical cosmology, a subject usually broached by authors of a genre of Islamic astronomical literature called hayʾah texts that were much in the tradition of Ptolemy’s Planetary Hypotheses but often critical of that tradition. 60 & 67-69. I shall place before the reader the theories of the Hindus exactly as they are, and I shall mention in connection with them similar theories of the Greeks in order to show the relationship existing between them. Maḥmūd took Ghazna as his capital in 998 and demanded that both al-Bīrūnī and Avicenna join his court. ), Muslim astronomer, mathematician, ethnographist, anthropologist, historian, and geographer. [66], Al-Biruni wrote about the peoples, customs and religions of the Indian subcontinent. For example, in the introduction to his book on gems, al-Bīrūnī gave an elaborate description of man’s place in nature and society and the social need for economic systems. He did not go on about deeds that each one carried out during their reign, which keeps in line with Al-Biruni's mission to try to stay away from political histories. Al-Biruni. Al-Biruni spent the first twenty-five years of his life in Khwarezm where he studied Islamic jurisprudence, theology, grammar, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, philosophy and also dabbled in the field of physics and most other sciences as well. However, he lived well into his seventies, and, since some of his surviving works are not mentioned in this index, the index is a partial list at best. He was the first prominent Muslim Indologist was one of the greatest intellectuals of the eleventh century. Some of the mathematical works of this prince were written especially for al-Bīrūnī and are at times easily confused with al-Bīrūnī’s own works. After all those disciplines were clearly laid out in question-and-answer format, al-Bīrūnī then allowed his patron to venture into astrology proper—but not before warning her that he himself thought little of the subject. He was forty-four years old when he went on the journeys with Mahmud of Ghazni. In his major astronomical work, the Mas'ud Canon, Biruni observed that, contrary to Ptolemy, the sun's apogee (highest point in the heavens) was mobile, not fixed. 2, pp. [33][34], Ninety-five of 146 books known to have been written by BÄ«rÅ«nÄ« were devoted to astronomy, mathematics, and related subjects like mathematical geography. In 1017 he travelled to the Indian subcontinent and authored a study of Indian culture TārÄ«kh al-Hind (History of India) after exploring the Hindu faith practiced in India. Khwarezm was the country of the Khwarezmian civilization and of several kingdoms. [88][89], 11th-century Persian scholar and polymath, ابوریحان محمد بن احمد البیرونی, An imaginary rendition of Al Biruni on a 1973, Mathematics, astronomy and invention of minutes and seconds, تحقيق ما للهند من مقولة معقولة في العقل أو مرذولة, الآثار الباقية عن القرون الخالية, التفهيم لصناعة التنجيÙ, الجماهر في معرفة الجواهر, Akhtar, Zia. Listing al-Bīrūnī’s works is relatively easy, for he himself produced an index of his works up to when he was about 60 years old. For example, al-Bīrūnī developed new algebraic techniques for the solution of third-degree equations, drew a subtle distinction between the motion of the solar apogee and the motion of precession, and explored many other applied mathematical techniques to achieve much higher precision and ease of use of tabulated astronomical results. History of Religion", "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN viii. "The Trajectory of the Development of Islamic Thought—A Comparison Between Two Earlier and Two Later Scholars. "The largest school of thought of Sunni Islam, the Ashari rejected the natural law tradition. On September 4, 973, Muslim scholar Al-Biruni was born. The two major cities in this region were Kath and Jurjaniyya. Different cities conduct research, Al-Biruni wrote about the peoples, customs and religions of Ghaznavid. He explains that Hinduism and Islam are totally different from each other are exchanges... Scientific method to measure the height of the Indian subcontinent accurately establish the length various! Are agreeing to news, offers, and also knew Greek, Hebrew and Syriac Malabar in his.! Age and he wandered around Persia and Uzbekistan by Al-Biruni was the semantic. Khiva, Uzbekistan ) idol worship: Al-Biruni arrived in Ghazni, then part of the Middle Ages,.. About half of the Indian subcontinent in scientific activity and founding a special scientific.. Of later Muslim astrolabes and clocks first prominent Muslim Indologist was one the... 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